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ENGINEERING GUIDES: 

HARDENED STEEL AND HARD ALLOYS ALLOY CONTENT IN STEEL

 

 

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF:

Low Carbon Steel

  • 0.05 - 0.35% Carbon
  • Easy Machining & Forming
  • Comparatively Less Strength
  • Least Expensive
  • Comparatively Less Hardness
  • Largest Quantity Produced

Medium Carbon Steel

  • 0.35% - 0.50% Carbon
  • Hard & Strong After Heat Treating; Medium Depth of Hardness
  • More Expensive Than Low Carbon Steel

High Carbon Steel

  • 0.50% - 1.00% Carbon
  • Hard & Strong After Heat Treating; Depth of Hardness Increases
  • More Expensive Than Low & Medium Carbon Steels

 

THE TEN COMMON CATEGORIES OF TOOL STEEL

Category Description

Materials Designation

A

Air Hardening

A2,A3,A4,A5,A6
D

Oil or Air Hardening

(High Carbon, High Chromium)

Dl, D2, D3, D4 D5, & D7
H

Hot Working

(Chromium,Tungsten, Molybdenum)

H10, Hll, H12, H13, H 14, H16, H19, H20, H21, H22, H23, H24, H25, H26, H27, H41, H42 & H43
L Special Purpose (Low Alloy L2, L3, L6, & L7
M High Speed (Molybdenum) Ml, M2, M3(i), M3(ii), M4, M6, M7, MIO, M15, M30, M33, M34, M36, M41, M42, M43, M44, M46, M47 & M50
O Oil Hardening 01, 02,06, & 07
P Mold Making P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P20 & 21
S Shock Resisting Sl, S2, S5 & S7
T High Speed (Tungsten) TI, T2. T3, T4, T5. T6, T7, T8, T9 & T15
W Water Hardening WI, W2 & W5

In the examples shown above, Wl would refer to a water hardened tool steel (the W is the identifier and 1 refers to the composition/type of water hardened tool steel).

 

COMMON ALLOYING ELEMENT EFFECTS ON STEEL

Alloy Element Effect on Steel
Aluminum Deoxidation - Ease of Nitriding
Boron Hardenability
Carbon Hardness - Strength - Wear
Chromium Corrosion Resistance - Hardenability
Cobalt Hardness - Wear
Columbium Elimination of Carbide Precipitation
Copper Corrosion Resistance - Strength
Lead Machinability
Manganese Strength - Hardenability - More Response To Heat Treatment
Molybdenum High Temperature Strength - Hardenability
Nickel Toughness - Strength - Hardenability
Phosphorus Strength
Silicon Deoxidation - Hardenability
Sulfur Machinability
Tellurium Machinability
Titanium Elimination of Carbide Precipitation
Vanadium Fine Grain - Toughness

(information provided courtesy of Industrial Heating Thermal Processing Databook 1998)

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Instructions: Please use 1 sheet per alloy. If using the same alloy but different hardness requirement, the use a separate sheet for each.

Present Condition of Parts

Item #1

Item #2

Item #3

Item #4


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